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Noni Research
* Chemical constituents of Morinda citrifolia fruits inhibit copper-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation.
* Inhibition of angiogenic initiation and disruption of newly established human vascular networks by juice from Morinda citrifolia (noni).
* Cancer preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni).
* Two novel glycosides from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (noni) inhibit AP-1 transactivation and cell transformation in the mouse epidermal JB6 cell line.
* An immunomodulatory polysaccharide-rich substance from the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni) with anti-tumor activity.
* Anti-tumor potential of a polysaccharide-rich substance from the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on sarcoma 180 ascites tumor in mice.
* Cancer preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni).
* A cross-cultural study: anti-inflammatory activity of Australian and Chinese plants.
* Analgesic and behavioral effects of Morinda citrifolia.
* The University of Hawaii is about to begin groundbreaking research into a potential treatment for cancer that can be found almost everywhere throughout the Hawaiian Islands.
* Anti Cancer Activity of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni Juice)
* Induction of Normal Phenotypes in RAS transformed cells by Damnacanthal from Morinda Citrifolia.
* Steven M. Hall M.D.
* Phytochemicals Reverse Cancer
* Noni Is A Treasure Chest Of Phytochemicals
* How Noni Helps The Body Fight Off Cancer!
* How Noni Did It
* More Cancer Fighting Power Is Found!
* References Cited In The Text
* Recent Scientific Studies on Morinda Citrifolia (Noni)
* Conclusion
* Dr. Steven Hall's Response to an article that appeared in Prevention Magazine
* An Article Summarizing Many Noni Studies http://www.chinaphar.com/1671-4083/23/1127.pdf
* Analgesic Effect of the Alcoholic Extract from the Fruits of Morinda Citrifolia top
* Chemical constituents of Morinda citrifolia fruits inhibit copper-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation.
 

Kamiya K, Tanaka Y, Endang H, Umar M, Satake T.
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and High Technology Research Center, Kobe Gakuin University, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2180, Japan.

The oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays an important role in the genesis of arteriosclerosis. The present study focused on the effects of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia on preventing arteriosclerosis . The MeOH extract and CHCl(3)-, EtOAc-, n-BuOH-, and H(2)O-soluble phases derived from the fruits of M. citrifolia were evaluated for their inhibitory activity on copper-induced LDL oxidation by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) method. The MeOH extract and EtOAc-soluble phase showed 88 and 96% inhibition, respectively. Six lignans were isolated by repeated column chromatography from the EtOAc-soluble phase. These compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis to be 3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (1), americanol A (2), americanin A (3), americanoic acid A (4), morindolin (5), and isoprincepin (6), of which 4 and 5 are novel compounds. These compounds inhibited copper-induced LDL oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. 1, 2, 5, and 6 exhibited remarkably strong activities, which were the same or better than that of the known antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol. The IC(50) values for 1, 2, 5, and 6 were 1.057, 2.447, 2.020, and 1.362 microM, respectively. The activity of these compounds is mainly due to their number of phenolic hydroxyl groups.
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Inhibition of angiogenic initiation and disruption of newly established human vascular networks by juice from Morinda citrifolia (noni).
 

Hornick CA, Myers A, Sadowska-Krowicka H, Anthony CT, Woltering EA.
Department of Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. chorni@lsuhsc.edu noni, the juice of the fruit from the Morinda citrifolia plant, has been used for centuries as a medicinal agent. We tested the effects of noni juice in a three-dimensional fibrin clot matrix model using human placental vein and human breast tumor explants as sources for angiogenic vessel development. Noni in concentrations of 5% (vol/vol) or greater was highly effective in inhibiting the initiation of new vessel sprouts from placental vein explants, compared with initiation in control explants in media supplemented with an equivalent amount of saline. These concentrations of noni were also effective in reducing the growth rate and proliferation of newly developing capillary sprouts. When used at a concentration of 10% in growth media, noni was able to induce vessel degeneration and apoptosis in wells with established capillary networks within a few days of its application. We also found that 10% noni juice in media was an effective inhibitor of capillary initiation in explants from human breast tumors . In tumor explants which did show capillary sprouting, the vessels rapidly degenerated (2-3 days) in those exposed to media supplemented with 10% noni.top

4 Anti-tumor potential of a polysaccharide-rich substance from the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on sarcoma 180 ascites tumor in mice.
 

Furusawa E, Hirazumi A, Story S, Jensen J.
Department of Pharmacology, John Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.

An immunomodulatory polysaccharide-rich substance (Noni-ppt) from the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia has been found to possess both prophylactic and therapeutic potentials against the immunomodulator sensitive Sarcoma 180 tumor system. The anti-tumor activity of Noni-ppt produced a cure rate of 25%-45% in allogeneic mice and its activity was completely abolished by the concomitant administration of specific inhibitors of macrophages (2-chloroadenosine), T cells (cyclosporine) or natural killer (NK) cells (anti-asialo GM1 antibody). Noni-ppt showed synergistic or additive beneficial effects when combined with a broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic drugs, including cisplatin, adriamycin, mitomycin-C, bleomycin, etoposide, 5- fl uorouracil, vincristine or camptothecin . It was not beneficial when combined with paclitaxel, cytosine arabinoside, or immunosuppressive anticancer drugs such as cyclophosphamide, methotrexate or 6-thioguanine. Noni-ppt also demonstrated beneficial effects when combined with the Th1 cytokine, interferon gamma, but its activity was abolished when combined with Th2 cytokines, interleukin-4 or interleukin-10, thereby suggesting that Noni-ppt induces a Th1 dominant immune status in vivo. The combination of Noni-ppt with imexon, a synthetic immunomodulator, also demonstrated beneficial effects, but not when combined with the MVE-2 copolymer, a high molecular weight immunomodulator. It was also not effective when combined with interleukin-2 or interleukin-12. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.top

* Two novel glycosides from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (noni) inhibit AP-1 transactivation and cell transformation in the mouse epidermal JB6 cell line.
 

Liu G, Bode A, Ma WY, Sang S, Ho CT, Dong Z.
The Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, Austin, MN 55912, USA.

The fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni), a plant originally grown in the Hawaiian and Tahitian islands, has long been used by islanders to treat diseases, including cancer. Two novel glycosides, 6-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-O-octanoyl-beta-D-glucopyranose and asperulosidic acid, extracted from the juice of noni fruits, were used to examine their effects on 12-O-tedtradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced AP-1 transactivation and cell transformation in mouse epidermal JB6 cells. The results indicated that both compounds were effective in suppressing TPA- or EGF-induced cell transformation and associated AP-1 activity. TPA- or EGF-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinases or p38 kinases, was also blocked by the compounds, indicating that c-Jun N-terminal kinases were critical in mediating TPA- or EGF-induced AP-1 activity and subsequent cell transformation in JB6 cells.top

* An immunomodulatory polysaccharide-rich substance from the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni) with anti-tumor activity.
 

Hirazumi A, Furusawa E.
Department of Pharmacology, John A., Burns School of Medicine, 1960 East West Road, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.

The fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni) contains a polysaccharide-rich substance (noni-ppt) with anti-tumor activity in the Lewis lung (LLC) peritoneal carcinomatosis model. Therapeutic administration of noni-ppt significantly enhanced the duration of survival of inbred syngeneic LLC tumor bearing mice. It did not exert significant cytotoxic effects in an adapted culture of LLC cells, LLC1, but could activate peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) to impart profound toxicity when co-cultured with the tumor cells. This suggested the possibility that noni-ppt may suppress tumor growth through activation of the host immune system. Concomitant treatment with the immunosuppressive agent, 2-chloroadenosine (C1-Ade) or cyclosporin (cys-A) diminished its activity, thereby substantiating an immunomodulatory mechanism. Noni-ppt was also capable of stimulating the release of several mediators from murine effector cells, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-10, IL-12 p70, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and nitric oxide (NO), but had no effect on IL-2 and suppressed IL-4 release. Improved survival time and curative effects occurred when noni-ppt was combined with sub-optimal doses of the standard chemotherapeutic agents, adriamycin (Adria), cisplatin (CDDP), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and vincristine (VCR), suggesting important clinical applications of noni-ppt as a supplemental agent in cancer treatment. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. top

* A cross-cultural study: anti-inflammatory activity of Australian and Chinese plants.
 

Li RW, Myers SP, Leach DN, Lin GD, Leach G.
Australian Center for Complementary Medicine Education and Research, A Joint Venture of the University of Queensland and Southern Cross University, P.O. Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia. rli@scu.edu.au

In this study, in vitro inhibitory effects of 33 ethanol extracts obtained from 24 plant species (representing 11 different families) on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) were evaluated. The plant materials selected for this study have been used in aboriginal medicine in Australia and traditional medicine in China for the treatment of various diseases that are considered as inflammation in nature, e.g. asthma, arthritis, rheumatism, fever, edema, infections, snakebite and related inflammatory diseases. All of the selected plants, with one exception, showed inhibitory activity against COX-1, which supports their traditional uses. The most potent COX-1 inhibition were observed from the extracts of Acacia ancistrocarpa leaves (IC(50)=23 microg/ml). Ficus racemosa bark, Clematis pickeringii stem, Acacia adsurgens leaves, Tinospora smilacina stem and Morinda citrifolia fruit powder exhibited inhibition of COX-1 with the IC(50) of 100, 141, 144, 158 and 163 microg/ml, respectively. Aspirin and indomethacin used as the reference COX-1 inhibitors in this study inhibited COX-1 with IC(50) of 241 and 1.2 microg/ml, respectively. The findings of this study may explain at least in part why these plants have been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in Australian aboriginal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine.top

* Analgesic and behavioral effects of Morinda citrifolia.
 

Younos C, Rolland A, Fleurentin J, Lanhers MC, Misslin R, Mortier F.
Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie, Universite de Metz, France.

The traditional therapeutic indications for the use of Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae) have been investigated. The lyophilised aqueous extract of roots of M. citrifolia was evaluated for analgesic and behavioral effects in mice. The extract did not exhibit any toxic effects but did show a significant, dose-related, central analgesic activity in the writhing and hotplate tests; this effect was confirmed by the antagonistic action of naloxone. Furthermore, administration of M. citrifolia extract at high dosages decreased all behavioral parameters in the two compartment test, the light/dark choice situation test, and the staircase test; together with the induced sleeping time, these results are suggestive of sedative properties.top

* The University of Hawaii is about to begin groundbreaking research into a potential treatment for cancer that can be found almost everywhere throughout the Hawaiian Islands.
 

HONOLULU, 9:00 p.m. HST July 16, 2001

Researchers want to find out if the extract of the noni plant (pictured, left) has anti-cancer properties. The plant has been used for hundreds of years by Native Hawaiians of medicinal purposes, but it is the first time that its effects will be scientifically studied.

"It's been used a lot as a restorative, as a tonic," Dr. Brian Issell of the UH Cancer Research Center said.

The noni plant is believed to have anti-cancer properties, and can control high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease.

"Part of the study is to look at what chemicals that are in noni that get into the blood and may be responsible for the anti-cancer activity," Issell said.
Issell and his research team have been awarded $340,000 by the National Institutes of Health to conduct the two-year study on 30 cancer patients who have undergone standard treatments.

Noni research in the laboratory has successfully stopped cancer, according to Issell. Outside of the lab, people normally drink the liquefied extract of the noni plant.
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* Anti Cancer Activity of Morinda Citrifolia
 

Annie Hirazumi
Anti Cancer Activity of Morinda Citrifolia on Intraperitoneally Implanted Lewis Lung Carcinoma in Syngenic Mice A. Hirazumi, E. Furusawa, S.C. Chou & Y. Hokama Proc. West. Pharmacol. Soc. 37: 145-146 (1994)

This is a very significant study by a team of researchers from the University of Hawaii led by Annie Hirazumi. Ms. Hirazumi became interested in the study of the Noni fruit because of earlier experiences with its amazing qualities. Her father helped a good friend with the juice of the Noni, and later, Annie administered the pure Noni juice to a pet dog who was dying. The dog recovered miraculously, and Annie set out to find out more about this incredible fruit. The study by Ms. Hirazumi and her colleagues was conducted on live laboratory mice (specifically C57BL/6 mice) specifically identified as very receptive to injected Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells. The mice were injected with active Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells (LLC). Untreated, the mice died from 9-12 days after injection from the tumor growth. A portion of the injected mice were treated with Noni juice in five separate daily treatments. The Noni juice was shown to significantly increase the life span of the treated mice (from 105% 123%) with 9 of the 22 mice surviving for more than 50 days. The experiment was repeated on a different lot of mice with similar results. The Research Team concluded that the Noni juice: seems to act indirectly by enhancing host immune system involving macrophages and/or lymphocytes.top

* Induction of Normal Phenotypes in RAS transformed cells by Damnacanthal from Morinda Citrifolia.
 

T. Hiramatsu, M. Imoto, T Koyano, K. Umezawa Cancer Letters 73 (1993) 161-166

In this study, a team of Japanese researchers studied the effect of over 500 extracts from tropical plants on the K-ras-NRK cell (a pre cursor to certain types of cancer). The compound, damnacanthal, found in the Morinda Citrifolia (Noni), was found to be an inhibitor of Ras function. The research: Ras cells were seeded into 96 plates and incubated at 33 degrees centigrade for 24 hours. The Noni plant extract was added and the cell morphology was examined every day for five days.

The Ras function was inhibited by the injected plant extract. This same compound has been found to inhibit the Epstein-Barr virus early-antigen activation. The extract from the Morinda Citrifolia was found to be most effective in inhibiting Ras function among the 500 tested extracts.top

* Steven M. Hall M.D.
 

This is from Steven M. Hall, M.D. who on January 7, 1997 reported the following results: "A 75 y/o male with metastatic prostate cancer, most recent PSA of 55, I added... Noni to his conventional treatment regimen and within 2 weeks, his PSA was 1.1."2 (emphasis added) There is simply nothing else I am aware of that could possibly reduce Prostatic Specific Antigen from 55 (indicating uncontrolled cancer) to a normal 1.1, and DO IT IN JUST 2 WEEKS. top

* Phytochemicals Reverse Cancer
 

The power of phytochemicals to promote good health and control cancer is so impressive that the University of Illinois has created a whole new department with 63 scientists and professors to specialize in phytochemical research! Let me share with you some of the scientific findings leading to this major change in research.

Senior Science Advisor to the U.S. Public Health Service, Dr. D.L. Davis states, "Phytochemicals can take tumors and defuse them. They can turn off the proliferative process of cancer." At Ohio State University's Cancer Prevention Laboratory, Dr. Mark Morse and colleagues found that phytochemicals in broccoli known as sulforaphane could reduce esophegeal tumor incidence by as much as 40% and reduce the multiplication of such cancer cells by 90%. Dr. Paul Taladay working at John Hopkins Medical Institute has found that this same phytochemical protected animals from getting cancer even when exposed to cancer causing chemicals. According to Dr. Joseph Hotchkiss of Cornell University, the phytochemicals coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid are able to eliminate many cancer causing substances from the body. An epidemiologist at the University of Minnesota, Dr. John Potter, told Newsweek Magazine, "At almost every step along the pathway to cancer, phytochemicals slow up or reverse the process." Most of these phytochemicals studied so far are found in ordinary vegetables and culinary herbs. The problem is that the amount in these foods is so low that only if you eat a lot of them for a long time will they give you protection. If you already have cancer, what you need is a plant that has these phytochemicals in large enough amounts to go right to work. top

* Noni Is A Treasure Chest Of Phytochemicals
 

When plant scientists at the U.S. Department of Agriculture studied the amazing Noni plant they quickly found the secret to its amazing health building power. It is endowed with a greater number and variety of health giving phytochemicals than just about any plant known. Dr. James A. Duke is one of the world's most highly respected scientific authorities on herbs and their phytochemical content. In his authoritative CRC Handbook on Phytochemicals he has listed 23 different phytochemicals found in Noni as well as 5 vitamins and 3 minerals. Research on Noni continues at an ever increasing pace with more of its phytochemicals being uncovered all the time.

IT IS THE INCREDIBLE POWER OF THESE PHYTOCHEMICALS THAT ARE PRODUCING THE WONDERFUL HEALTH BUILDING RESULTS DOCTORS AND PATIENTS ARE NOW SEEING AS A RESULT OF USING THIS AMAZING FRUIT! AS SAFE TO USE AS ANY FRUIT ON THE MARKET.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, as well as the Department of Agriculture maintain a list of plants that have no known harmful ingredients and which over the test of time with large numbers of people have proven themselves to be safe for human consumption by the general population. This is known as the GRAS list, and it stands for Generally Recognized As Safe.5 Based on the fact that after careful scientific analysis no harmful ingredients were found, and that the Hawaiian and Polynesian people have been using this health building herb without harm for thousands of years, NONI HAS BEEN OFFICIALLY DESIGNATED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE.

Even though Noni is extremely safe, I would always suggest that the introduction of a new herb into the diet be approached with caution by anyone known to have food sensitivities, allergies, or asthma. I would also caution a woman who is pregnant or nursing to consult her physician before using Noni or any other herb.top

* How Noni Helps The Body Fight Off Cancer!
 

Researchers at the University of Hawaii School of Medicine introduced cells containing a strain of lung cancer known as Lewis Lung Carcinoma into a group of mice especially bred to be highly susceptible to this type of cancer. Within 9 to 12 days the mice which were given no Noni were all dead as a result of the growth of the tumor. However, another group of these same mice were given an extract of the Noni fruit on five different occasions. At the end of the 12 days when all the untreated mice were dead, those given the Noni were still alive and doing well! At the end of 24 days, the Noni treated mice were all still going strong, this was a 100% extension of life! Actually, 40% which is 9 out of the 22 mice given the Noni, survived for more than 50 days. This is a lifespan more than 4 times greater than the longest living mouse not receiving the Noni. This an incredible achievement! Now remember, these were not just any mice, these mice were specifically bred to succumb to this form of cancer. In this regard, they were "genetically doomed" to be cancer victims. Yet in spite of this, a simple Noni extract gave these mice as much as 4 times the life span of their untreated relatives.top

* How Noni Did It
 

I know you are as excited about what you just read as I am, but the best part may be how the Noni made this incredible achievement possible! Most people would just assume something in the Noni had killed the cancer cells. But like all good scientists, the researchers at the University of Hawaii School of Medicine wanted to know exactly how Noni had accomplished its miracle. What they found was quite surprising, and very important. They discovered that there was nothing in their Noni extract that killed the cancer cells. What they discovered was that there was a polysaccharide compound (6-D-glucopyranose pentaacetate) found in the Noni that INCREASED THE ABILITY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM TO PRODUCE CHEMICALS THAT ENHANCED THE KILLING POWER OF THE WHITE BLOOD CELLS.

Do you realize the great significance of that discovery? You see white blood cells have to kill many things besides cancer cells. They have to defend us against virus, bacteria, yeast, ameba, parasites and all types of invaders. Since this Noni polysaccharide worked by increasing the overall killing power of the white blood cells, this means it will most likely enhance that same killing power against any invader. It indicates Noni is very likely an overall immune enhancing substance that may provide that little extra which gives you the winning edge when some invading organism attacks your body.top

* More Cancer Fighting Power Is Found!
 

Japanese scientists were looking for a substance to fight cancer. They searched through over 500 different extracts from tropical plants looking for something which would inhibit the growth of RAS cancer cells. These are a particular type of fast growing and very malignant cancer cells that are hard to stop. Reporting in the journal Cancer Letters, the scientists stated that the Noni extract was by far the most effective at inhibiting and normalizing RAS transformed cancer cells. RAS is a normal part of the cell structure in every cell. It is a small protein which is part of the RNA of the cell and encodes for the reproduction of the cell. Only when it is activated by a carcinogenic protein within the cell does it trigger the cells to reproduce wildly. If you can turn off this uncontrolled RAS activity, you stop the cancers growth.8, 9. What the Japanese scientists found was that one of the phytochemicals in the Noni extract does exactly that! They found that it was the phytochemical in the Noni extract which goes by the fancy name of Damnacanthal that does this. When they added the Noni extract to RAS activated cancer cells they observed them daily for five days. What they saw was incredible !

They reported that slowly, day by day the cells began to change their morphology (cell structure) back to normal. It is only on the basis of this kind of hard science that doctors can rely upon the ability of a plant extract to produce the return to good health now being seen clinically by people who have been struggling with cancer. No one knows if Noni will produce a return to good health for any specific person, but the research shows there is a scientific basis for believing that it is possible. The above represent only a sample of the research completed on the Morinda Citrifolia plant. The results are conclusive in each case in showing the validity of the traditional use of the Noni.top

* References Cited In The Text
 
  1. Limehouse,DVM, John B., Letter publicly circulated, dated February 6, 1997
  2. Hall, M.D., Steven M., Statement publicly circulated, dated January 7, 1997
  3. Phytochemicals, 1994, Newsweek Magazine, April 25
  4. Duke, PhD, James A., Handbook of Phytochemicals, Published by CRC Publishing, Boca Raton, Fl.
  5. Ibid
  6. Hirazumi, A, et al, 1994, Proceedings Western Pharmacology Society, 37: 145-146
  7. Hirazumi, A., et al, 1996, Proceedings Western Pharmacology Society, 39: 7 - 9
  8. Sylvester, Edward, J., 1986, Target Cancer, Charles Scribner's Sons,N.Y., 9. Fackelman, K., 1997, Science News, 151: 274-275
  9. Hiramatsu, M, et al, 1993, Cancer Letters, 73: 161-66
  10. Lanettia, 1997, Carbohydrate Antigen 19- 9 Lab Report, SmithKline Beecham Clinical Laboratories
  11. Consuela, 1997, Carbohydrate Anitgen 19 9 Lab Results, Private Communication
  12. Levland, 0, & Larson, H.O., 1979, Some Chemical Constituants of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni), Planta Medica, 36: 186 -87
  13. Koumaglo, K., et al, 1992, Planta Medica, 58: 6
  14. Younos, C et al, 1990, Planta Medica, 56: 5
  15. Heinicke, Ralph, M., 1985, Bulletin National Tropical Garden, Hawaii
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4 Recent Scientific Studies on Morinda Citrifolia (Noni)
 

Introduction

The scientific community has begun to show more and more interest in Noni products as the benefits become even more well known. Noni began to catch the eye of researchers worldwide early in this century, and one by one, studies have revealed the amazing qualities of the Noni fruit.

This document contains a brief summary and interpretation of some studies that are important in understanding the value of this plant. This document will not attempt to reproduce each study found or reprint verbatim each study cited. This information is provided in the hopes that people everywhere may become better familiar with the amazing properties of the Noni fruit.top

Dr Ralph Heinicke: Xeronine and Cell Regeneration

As a research in Hawaii, Dr. Ralph Heinicke became aware of the marvelous benefits of the Noni Fruit and set out to find the pharmacologically active ingredient of the Noni. Dr. Heinicke had spent over 45 years studying the effects of an alkaloid he discovered and named xeronine. Xeronine is a relatively small alkaloid which is physiologically very active and important for the proper function of all cells in the body.

In his research, Dr. Heinicke discovered that the Noni juice contacts appreciable amounts of the precursor of xeronine that he named "pro-xeronine." Pro-xeronine releases pure xeronine in the intestines when it comes in contact with a particular enzyme also found in the Noni juice. Dr. Heinicke's theory, is that when released, xeronine actually works at the molecular level to repair damaged cells. Dr. Heinicke states that the primary function of xeronine is to regulate the rigidity and shape of specific proteins. Since these proteins have different functions within the cells, this explains how the administrations of Noni juice causes an unbelievably wide range of physiological responses.
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A. Hirazumi, E. Furrasawa, S.C. Chou & Y. Hokama.
"Anti-Cancer Activity of Morinda Citrifolia on Intraperitoneally implanted Lewis Lung Carcinoma in Syngenic Mice." Proc West Pharmacol Soc. 37: 145-146 (1994).

This is a very significant study by a team of researchers from the University of Hawaii led by Annie Hirazumi. Ms. Hirazumi became interested in the study of the Noni fruit because of earlier experiences with its amazing qualities. Her father helped a good friend with the juice of the Noni and later, Annie administered the pure Noni juice to a pet dog who was dying. The dog recovered miraculously, and Annie set out to find out more about this incredible fruit.

The study by Ms. Hirazumi and her colleagues was conducted on live laboratory mice (specifically C57Bl/6 mice) specifically identified as very receptive to injected Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells. The mice were injected with active Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells (LLC). Untreated, the mice died form 9-12 days after injection from tumor growth. A portion of the injected mice were treated with Noni juice in five separate daily treatments. The Noni juice was shown to significantly increase the life span of the treated mice (from 105%-123%) with 9 of 22 mice surviving for more than 50 days. The experiment was repeated on a different lot of mice with similar results.

The Research Team concluded that the Noni juice ".seems to act indirectly by enhancing host immune system involving macrophages and/or lymphocytes."
top
T. Hiramatsu, M. Imoto, T. Koyano, K. Umezawa.
"Induction of Normal Phenotypes in RAS-transformed cells by Damnacanthal from Morinda Citrifolia." Cancer Letters 73 (1993) 161-166.

In this study, a team of Japanese researchers studied the effect of over 500 extracts form tropical plants on the K-ras-NRK cell, (a pre-cursor to certain types of cancer). The compound, damnacanthal, found in the Morinda Citrifolia (Noni), was found to be an inhibitor of ras function.

The research: Ras cells were seeded into 96 plates and incubated at 33 degrees Centigrade for 24 hours. The Noni plant extract was added and the cell morphology was examined every day for 5 days. The Ras function was inhibited by the injected plant extract. This same compound has been found to inhibit the Epstein-Barr virus early-antigen activation. The extract from the Morinda Citrifolia was found to be most effective in inhibiting Ras function among the 500 tested extracts.

4 Conclusion
 

The above represent only a sample of the research completed on the Morinda Citrifolia Plant. The results are conclusive in each case in showing the validity of the traditional use of the Noni.

Noni plant has the following effects:

  • The Noni fruit seemed to retard tumor growth by stimulating the immune system.
  • The compounds in Noni actually work at the cellular level to cause cell regeneration and increase cell function.
  • Noni was shown to have significant impact on arresting the growth of implanted cancerous RAS cells.
  • It was also shown to have an analgesic effect.
  • It is effective against at least seven different kinds of harmful bacteria.
  • It is a natural antiseptic.
  • It is effective against fungus and parasites.

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* Dr. Steven Hall's Response to an article that appeared in Prevention Magazine
 

In the course of researching Noni you will occasionally come across so-called "experts" who go out of there way to declare Noni Juice a "scam" and a "fraud." Because we at Nothing But Noni spend so much time studying our products and communicating with our customers we are often completely shocked by the outrageous statements made by these "experts."

It is clear to us that this minority of "experts" have very little to no experience with Noni Juice and have not done their homework in terms of reading and research. We are not sure what motivates these people to write these things. Below we would like you to read one Doctor's response to one of these outrageous articles about the "Noni Fraud."

Following you will find a copy of the letter written to Prevention Magazine by Dr. Steven M. Hall, M.D. In this letter Dr. Hall refutes the arguments against Noni Juice that were presented by Dr. Varro E. Tyler under the heading 'Ask the Honest Herbalist.'

This article appeared in Prevention Magazine in the July 1998 issue:

Dr. Steven Hall's letter:

I would like to take exception to a recent column published in Prevention Magazine under the heading "Ask the Honest Herbalist." I believe this column was written by Varro E. Tyler of Purdue University. I would like to ask Dr. Tyler how many people he's personally monitored while they used Noni juice? Or was his column written solely from material he's read and his own beliefs?

I am a conventionally trained M.D. board certified in Family Practice who now specializes in combining the best of conventional with the best of alternative medicine. I came in contact with Noni Juice in September of 1996. Since that time, I have witnessed its actions in over 400 of my patients, many of whom have been written off as hopeless cases by their conventional practitioners. Administered properly, I have found that Noni juice has had positive, beneficial effects in 75% of people I've recommended take it.

In his column, Dr. Tyler states "...the claims made for noni are grossly exaggerated. They are not supported by any sound scientific or clinical evidence. Few medicinal uses of the plant have been recorded." On the contrary, when I did my own research on Noni, I found dozens of references in both the medical literature and the ethnobotany literature (ref 1-10 and their respective references) documenting many medicinal uses. I think that if you were interested in looking into it, you'd find that the exaggerated claims that Dr. Tyler is objecting to are not coming from the companies marketing the juice but rather from people who are using it. Perhaps there is something to their claims. Dr. Tyler's remarks strike me as subjective and prejudicial.

He goes on to claim that "Not much is known about the chemical constituents of the fruit, except that none of them is especially active biologically." Again, I must take exception (ref 13-23). Maybe my concept of what constitutes "much" and Dr. Tyler's concept of what constitutes "much" are very different. But people have published entire theses (ref 11, 12) on the chemical constituents of noni and one in particular, damnacanthol, isolated from noni roots, was more effective than 500 other botanical isolates tested in converting cancerous cells back into normal cells (ref 24). Another constituent of Noni juice, a polysaccharide, stimulates the activity of macrophages and T-lymphocytes (ref 21, 26). These constituents are very biologically active. And Dr. Heinicke has spent a good part of his career studying another constituent, proxeronine, the precursor for an alkaloid that is absolutely essential for life (ref 25).
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Dr. Tyler's final statement "Noni juice has never been proven to be useful therapeutically for any significant condition or disease" is probably the most accurate statement he made in the entire column. But even that depends on what you consider "proven." If the only proof you'll accept is double-blind placebo controlled cross-over studies, then yes, few of these have been done on noni. But that is only because the juice has only been commercially available for less than two years. Does the Polynesian 2000 years of experience with noni count for anything? The Department of Agriculture placed noni on the "Generally Regarded as Safe" list based upon government sponsored evaluations of the fruit done during WWII. This is the same list that contains other nutritional miracles such as orange juice and grape juice. So what is the harm in trying it? What health hazard is Dr. Tyler protecting people from?

Companies that are marketing Noni juice have no desire to get it reclassified from a nutritional substance into a therapeutic substance. The regulations governing the latter are much more complex and prohibitive. So why should they pay for these double-blind studies? You know as well as anyone that pharmaceutical companies pay for the studies that "prove" their drug's effectiveness. Who pays to study herbs? The politics and economics of "medical science" are the biggest roadblocks to the study, acceptance and utilization of natural remedies in our country today. People, for the most part, are willing to embrace natural remedies. I find it surprising that Prevention Magazine uses this political and economic climate to try and defame one of the most effective and beneficial natural remedies I've seen in my career. Are you really just a front for the perpetuation of pharmaceutical domination in Health Care?

I believe that the studies will come in a matter of time, as more and more people get experience with noni juice. In fact, a few major medical centers around the country (I doubt Purdue is one) are getting interested in noni juice and starting both laboratory and clinical testing. Researchers at the University of California, Irvine, College of Medicine, for example, have found that noni juice is a potent stimulator of NK killer cells, a quality that may be useful in HIV infections. Clinical studies are being organized now (ref 26). And I believe that the studies will validate my and other practitioners' experiences with noni.

I have been practicing medicine now for thirteen years and I've seen many products -- both pharmaceutical and nutraceutical -- come down the pike. But none of them have been as exciting to me as noni juice. I've never seen one natural product be so beneficial to so many people. I can understand Dr. Tyler's and your interest in protecting people from exaggerated and rabid product claims. We all know that those claims are out there. But I think that if Dr. Tyler is going to write under the caption "The Honest Herbalist" he should give noni an honest appraisal. How many clinicians familiar with noni did he interview for the column? I'd be happy to share my clinical experience with him.top

Noni juice is so beneficial to people under the stresses of modern life that you are doing people a huge disservice by discouraging them from trying it. In my opinion, I think noni is so incredible, you ought to consider doing a cover article on it. Ironically, Dr. Tyler also reviewed, in the same column, valerian and kava, two herbs I also use in my practice. Both of these herbs have very limited indications and received favorable write-ups from him. Yet, in my experience, they are only moderately effective in about 50% of the people I ask to try them. Noni helps many more conditions to a much higher degree of reliability. What is going on here? Is there some prejudice about how these three herbs are marketed? Is your top priority maintaining the health of people or the health of retail outlets? Do you have objections to a form of marketing that doesn't buy big ads in your publication? I would like to know your real motives for publishing this bit on noni, because I find this kind of deprecating and prejudiced journalism abhorrent. And it may even be damaging to the health of the public. Yet you, as a publication, profess to be about the opposite. Please explain this to me.

Thank you for your time in this matter. And I thank you in advance for the courtesy of your reply to my questions. I am also interested in Dr. Tyler's answers to my questions.

Sincerely,
Steven M. Hall, M.D.top

References

  • Elliott, S., Brimacombe, J.: "The Medicinal Plants of Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia" Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 19 (1987) 285-317.
  • Abbott, I., Shimazu, C.: "The Geographic Origin of the Plants Most Commonly Used for Medicine by Hawaiians" Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 14 (1985) 213-222.
  • Whistler, W.A.: "Traditional and Herbal Medicine in the Cook Islands" Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 13 (1985) 239-280.
  • Singh, Y.N., Ikahihifo, T., Panuve, M., Slater, C.: "Folk Medicine in Tonga" Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 12 (1984) 305-329.
  • Whistler, W.A.: Polynesian Herbal Medicine, Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Hong Kong, (1992) 137-174.
  • Dittmar, A.: "Morinda citrifolia-Use in Indigenous Samoan Medicine" Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants, Vol. 1(3) (1993) 77-93.
  • Krauss, B.H.: Native Plants used as Medicine in Hawaii, Honolulu, 1979.
  • Negata, K.M.: "Hawaiian Medicinal Plants" Economic Botany, 25 (1971).
  • Weiner, M.: "Ethnomedicine in Tonga" Economic Botany, 25 (1971).
  • Morton, J.F.: "The Ocean-Going Noni, or Indian Mulberry (Morinda citrifolia, Rubiaceae) and Some of its 'Colorful' Relatives" Economic Botany 46(3) (1992) 241-256.top
  • Levand, O.: "Some Chemical Constituents of Morinda citrifolia (noni) (Part 1), and The Structure of the Nitrocamphor Anhydrides (Part 2). Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, 1963.
  • Sim, H.H.: "The Isolation and Characterization of a Fluorescent Compound from the Fruit of Morinda citrifolia (Noni): Studes on the 5'HT Receptor System." MS thesis, Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI, 1993.
  • Levand, O., Larson, H.O.: "Some Chemical Constituents of Morinda citrifolia" Planta Med. 36(2) (1979) 186-187.
  • Ahmad, V.U., Bano, S.: "Isolation of beta-sitsterol and ursolic acid from Morinda citrifolia" Journal Chemical Soc. Pak. 2(2) (1980) 71.
  • Bushnell, O.A., Fukuda, M., Makinodan, T.: "The Antibacterial Properties of Some Plants Found in Hawaii" Pacific Sci. 4(3) (1950) 167-183.
  • Krisha Moorthy, N., Shama Reddy, G.: "Preliminary Phytochemical and Pharmacological Study of Morinda citrifolia" Antiseptic 67(3) (1970) 167-171.
  • Rusia, K., Srivastava, S.K.: "A New Anthraquinone from the Roots of Morinda citrifolia" Curr. Sci. 58(5) (1989) 249.
  • Thompson, R.H.: Naturally Occuring Quinones, 2nd ed. Academic, London, New York. (1971) 373-382, 386, 405, 410-412.
  • Raj, R.K.: "Screening of Indigenous Plants for Antihelmintic Action Against Human Ascaris lumbricoides: part II" Ind. J. Physiol. Pharmac. 19(1) (1975) 47-49.
  • Hirazumi, A., Furusawa, E., Chou, S.C., Hokama, Y.: "Anticancer Activity of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on Intraperitoneally Implanted Lewis Lung Carcinoma in Syngenic Mice" Proc. West. Pharmacol. Soc. 37 (1994) 145-146.
  • Hirazumi, A., Furusawa, E., Chou, S.C., Hokama, Y.: "Immunomodulation Contributes to the Anticancer Activity of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Fruit Juice" Proc. West. Pharmacol. Sco. 39 (1996) 7-9.
  • Hirazumi, A. Furusawa, E., Chou, S.C., Hokama, Y.: "Anticancer Activity of Morinda citrifolia Against Lewis Lung Carcinoma and Rauscher Retroviral Leukemia in Mice (Meeting Abstract) FASEB Journal. 9(3) (1995) A93.
  • Ganal, C.A., Hokama, Y.: "The Effect of Noni Fruit Extract on Thymocytes of BALB/c Mouse (Meeting Abstract). FASEB Journal. 7(4) (1993) A866.
  • Hiramatsu, T., Imoto, M., Koyano, T., Umezawa, K.: "Induction of Normal Phenotypes in RAS-transformed Cells by Damnachanthal from Morinda citrifolia" Cancer Letters, 73 (1993) 161-166.
  • Heinicke, R.M.: "The Pharmacologically Active Ingredient of Noni" The Bulletin, Univ. of Hawaii (1985) 10-14.
  • See, D.M.: University of California, Irvine, College of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Personal Communication. Oct. 1997.top
* Analgesic Effect of the Alcoholic Extract from the Fruits of Morinda Citrifolia
 

T. Punjanon, P. Nandhasri

The alcoholic extract from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) was evaluated for analgesic effect in mice using the acetic acid-induced writhing test. The extract was administered by i.p. injection in doses of 1, 2, 3 and 4 g of dried plant material kg -1 of animal body weight, 15 min before i.p. injection of acetic acid (0.75%). Morphine sulfate (1.5 mg kg -1 , i.p.) was used as the reference drug. Control animals received i.p. injections of 0.9% NaCl solution, instead of the extract. In control mice, the number of writhes during the 20 min test period was 43.0 ± 1.4 (mean ± S.E.M., n=6). The extracts produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction. The percentage inhibition was 4.4 ± 4.5, 21.2 ± 11.2, 71.4 ± 5.0, 93.1 ± 1.7 (mean ± S.E.M., n=6) at the doses of 1, 2, 3 and 4 g kg -1 respectively, compared to control animals.

The inhibitory effect of the 4 g kg -1 dose of extract was similar to that produced by morphine in a dose of 1.5 mg kg -1 . The antinoniceptive effect in writhing test was statistically significant (p<0.001) for 15 min until 5 hr of administration. The data obtained suggest that the alcoholic extraction from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia appears to have analgesic effect. Further studies are necessary for the identification of the active principles and more detailed elucidation of its mechanism of action is required

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